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Lawrence Stager suggests that the small horses pulling the chariot belong to pharaoh's army as in the Ashkelon scene (1985, 58). Rainey thinks the Shasu are Israelites, but others identify the Shasu as Edomites (Stager 1985, 60). They are now forced to admit that Israel was already in Canaan at the time of Merneptah. Israel was big and strong enough to challenge Egypt in battle. He concludes that the open country scene must be Israel. Rainey rejects this view because it shows them with chariots and infantry (1990, 56-60). One of the most important discoveries that relate to the time of the Exodus is the Merneptah stele which dates to about 1210 BC. "Rainey's Challenge." Biblical Archaeology Review 17:6 (November/December). Merneptah, the king of Egypt, boasts that he has destroyed his enemies in Canaan.
"Iy-'anaq" is named which may be related to the Anaqim or giants who dwelt in Canaan before the conquest (ANET 1969, 328). Shutu is probably Moab the sons of Sheth (Numbers ; Ahituv 1984, 184).
Both scholars Yurco and Rainey agree that these battle scenes are from Merneptah's reign (Yurco 1991, 61; Rainey 1992, 73-4; Hess 1993, 134).